3. Data Life Cycle

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3.7 Utilization

3.7.1 Licences and Rights

Similar to the data access framework, data utilisation requires clearly defined rules and boundaries. A licence is a tool that can be used to let users know how the data owner wishes to manage the exploitation of its data. There is a wide range of licence types, which often complicates the situation for both producers and data users1. However, there is a trend towards simplification and openness as can be seen with GEOSS's efforts to facilitate access to earth observation data2.

As an example, a licence can include the following elements:

  • Letting users copy and distribute data by stating:
    "Anyone can, without authorization and free of charge, copy, publish, adapt, translate and communicate by any means, any document, data and information available on this site"
  • Demanding that credit be given to author(s) or data owner according to a specific format:
    "… conditional to citing the source as follows:
    SOURCE: PRODUCER XYZ, HTTP://XYZ.CA, (YEAR)."
  • Allowing (or not) commercial use of data:
    "…use of data for personal or commercial use…".
  1. Campbell, J. 2015. Access to Scientific Data in the 21st Century: Rationale and Illustrative Usage Rights Review. Advance Publication, Data Science Journal. 28 p.
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/dsj/advpub/0/advpub_14-043/_pdf
  2. Onsrud, H., J. Campbell and B. van Loenen. 2010. Towards Voluntary Interoperable Open Access Licenses for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, 2010, Vol. 5, 194-215.
    http://ijsdir.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.php/ijsdir/article/view/168/203